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Sunday, July 3, 2011

Radiation Detection: plastic materials, such as developing a glowing blue Univ.

Radiation Detection: plastic materials, such as developing a glowing blue Univ.

(RadiationAlerts.org note. If this product was made into packaging for water, foods, even clothing, then today's issues, this invention has a big market.)


When exposed to gamma rays in a cup made of scintigraphy Rex, Assistant Professor Nakamura Kyoto offers blue-lighted

NIRS provides a kind of shed-Assistant Professor Nakamura made with gamma scintigraphy, etc. Rex cup
 A plastic material that glows blue when radiation hits, Kyoto University and NIRS, Chiba, developed by Teijin team. "Cinch Rex" was named. Cheap and easy to process the advantages are expected to be applied to carry dosimeters, which aims to commercialize this fall. 29, Journal of the European Physical Society Bulletin (electronic version) was released.
 Conventional radiation detector has been used to give substance when exposed to visible light radiation. Some use a plastic detector is a special process in order to give light, the production cost that it takes tens of thousands to several hundred thousand yen.
 Nakamura of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Assistant Professor Hidehito team (radiation physics) last year and discovered that can detect the ultraviolet radiation hits the bottle on the market. Determine the sensitivity to radiation that is involved in the oxygen contained in the plastic was prepared by adding improvements.
 Performance is comparable to or larger than the conventional product, alpha, beta radiation, gamma rays capable of. The process can be easily mass produced, is reduced to one-tenth the cost of manufacturing. Measure the internal exposure "whole-body counter" that can be applied to large equipment such as.
 Assistant Professor Nakamura, "The impact of the first nuclear accident in Fukushima, which is required close to the radiation detector. Want to hang on the application of radiation detectors, such as mobile phone straps," he said. Yuka Saito]]


Friday, July 1, 2011

Nuclear industry, regulators maintain cozy relationship

Nuclear industry, regulators maintain cozy relationship.
(when will we learn)

By JEFF DONN
The Associated Press


LACEY TOWNSHIP, N.J. | Federal regulators have worked closely with the nuclear power industry to keep the nation’s aging reactors operating within safety standards by repeatedly weakening those standards or failing to enforce them, The Associated Press has found.

Time after time, officials at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have decided that original regulations were too strict, arguing that safety margins could be eased without peril, according to records and interviews.
The result? Rising fears that these accommodations by the NRC are undermining safety and inching the reactors closer to an accident.

Examples abound. When valves leaked, more leakage was allowed — up to 20 times the original limit. When rampant cracking caused radioactive leaks from steam generator tubing, an easier test of the tubes was devised.

Failed cables, busted seals, broken nozzles, clogged screens, cracked concrete, dented containers, corroded metals and rusty underground pipes — all of these and thousands of other problems linked to aging were uncovered.

Not one official body in government or industry has studied the overall frequency and safety impact of such breakdowns in recent years, even as the NRC has extended the licenses of dozens of reactors.
Industry and government officials defend their actions.

“I see an effort on the part of this agency to always make sure that we’re doing the right things for safety. I’m not sure that I see a pattern of staff simply doing things because there’s an interest to reduce requirements — that’s certainly not the case,” NRC chairman Gregory Jaczko said in an interview at agency headquarters in Rockville, Md.

But the yearlong AP investigation found that, with billions of dollars and 19 percent of America’s electricity supply at stake, a cozy relationship prevails between the industry and its regulator.

Records show a pattern. Reactor parts or systems fall out of compliance. Studies are conducted by the industry and government, and all agree that existing standards are “unnecessarily conservative.” Regulations are loosened, and the reactors are back in compliance.
“That’s what they say for everything, whether that’s the case or not,” said Demetrios Basdekas, an engineer retired from the NRC.

The ongoing crisis at the stricken, decades-old Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear facility in Japan has focused attention on the safety of plants, prompting an NRC report on U.S. reactors that is due in July.
Reactors in Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska have come under scrutiny for their ability to handle earthquakes, tornadoes and flooding.

The Wolf Creek reactor 100 miles west of Kansas City recently received poor marks for its tornado preparedness plan.
Flooding has kept the Fort Calhoun plant 20 miles north of Omaha shut down since a scheduled refueling in April. And the Cooper Nuclear Station 70 miles south of Omaha issued a flooding alert Sunday.
The Callaway plant near Fulton, Mo., was ranked by one review as least likely among all the nation’s reactors to suffer earthquake damage.

But the factor of aging goes far beyond the issues posed by potential disasters.
Commercial nuclear reactors in the United States were designed and licensed for 40 years. When the first ones were being built in the 1960s and 1970s, it was expected they would be replaced with improved models long before the licenses expired.

Instead, 66 of the 104 operating units have been relicensed for 20 more years, mostly with scant public attention. Renewal applications are under review for 16 other reactors.
Wolf Creek, originally licensed in 1985, has been renewed through 2045. The Nebraska reactors, first licensed in the 1970s, are relicensed into the 2030s.

Callaway operates under its original 1984 license that won’t expire until 2024.
The AP’s report did not mention any of the four plants in the region.

A statement from Callaway operator Ameren Corp. said it proactively inspected, assessed, updated and replaced equipment. It has, for example, replaced 70,000 condenser tubes in 2004, all four steam generators in 2005 and its underground piping in 2008 and 2009, for which it received a Top Industry Practices award from the Nuclear Energy Institute. Also, a project to replace the reactor vessel head, or lid, is under way.
The Nebraska Public Power District, which operates the Cooper facility, has invested more in the plant in the last five years that it cost to build originally, a statement from the district said. It also said the plant’s operations are reviewed by the Institute of Power Operations, other nuclear utilities and self-regulating bodies independent of the NRC. Its recent license renewal included a safety review by an independent group that advises the NRC.

Spokespeople for Wolf Creek and Fort Calhoun declined to comment specifically on the AP report.
The AP found that aging reactors have been allowed to run less safely to prolong operations.
Last year, for example, the NRC weakened the safety margin for acceptable radiation damage to reactor vessels — for a second time. The standard is based on a measurement known as a reactor vessel’s “reference temperature,” which predicts when it will become brittle and vulnerable to failure. Over the years, many plants have violated or come close to violating the standard.

As a result, the minimum standard was relaxed first by raising the reference temperature 50 percent, then 78 percent.
“We’ve seen the pattern,” said nuclear safety scientist Dana Powers, who works for Sandia National Laboratories and sits on an NRC advisory committee. “They’re … trying to get more and more out of these plants.”

Neil Wilmshurst, director of plant technology for the industry’s Electric Power Research Institute, acknowledged that the industry and NRC often collaborated on research that supported rule changes. But he maintained that there was “no kind of misplaced alliance ... to get the right answer.”

And former NRC commissioner Peter Lyons said: “There certainly is plenty of research … to support a relaxation of the ‘conservativisms’ that had been built in before. I don’t see that as decreasing safety. I see that as an appropriate standard.”

Though some parts are too big and too expensive to replace, industry defenders also point out that many others are routinely replaced.

Tony Pietrangelo, chief nuclear officer of the industry’s Nuclear Energy Institute, acknowledges that you’d expect to see a growing failure rate at some point — “if we didn’t replace and do consistent maintenance.”
Supporters of aging plants say an old reactor is essentially a collection of new parts.

“When a plant gets to be 40 years old, about the only thing that’s 40 years old is the ink on the license,” said NRC chief spokesman Eliot Brenner. “Most if not all of the major components will have been changed out.”
Yet agency staff, plant operators and consultants paint a different picture in reports, where evidence of industrywide problems is striking.

For example, the 39-year-old Palisades reactor in Michigan shut down Jan. 22 when an electrical cable failed, a fuse blew and a valve stuck shut, expelling steam with low levels of radioactive tritium.
One 2008 NRC report blamed 70 percent of potentially serious safety problems on “degraded conditions.” Some involve human factors, but many stem from equipment wear, including cracked nozzles, loose paint, electrical problems or offline cooling components.

Postponed inspections inside a steam generator at Indian Point, 25 miles north of New York, allowed tubing to burst, leading to a radioactive release in 2000.

Two years later, cracking was allowed to grow so bad in nozzles on the reactor vessel at the Davis-Besse plant near Toledo, Ohio, that it came within two months of a possible breach, the NRC acknowledged in a report. A hole in the vessel could release radiation into the environment, yet inspections failed to catch the same problem on the replacement vessel head until more nozzles were found to be cracked last year.
In an effort to meet safety standards, aging reactors have been forced to come up with backfit on top of backfit.

As Ivan Selin, a retired NRC chairman, put it: “It’s as if we were all driving Model T’s today and trying to bring them up to current mileage standards.”
The Star’s Mark Davis contributed to this report.

Read more: http://www.kansascity.com/2011/06/20/2963616/nuclear-industry-regulators-work.html#ixzz1QuyCLz00

Donatefree.org

SOS Still Helping Chernobyl Children, Twenty-five Years Later


SOS Still Helping Chernobyl Children, Twenty-five Years Later 


SOS Children's Villages - Belarus
SOS children building a puzzle at SOS Belarus. Photo by Benno Neeleman
April 28, 2011: The 25th anniversary of the nuclear power plant explosion at Chernobyl, in Ukraine, comes at an especially poignant time, as Japan is in the throes of dealing with its own nuclear plant meltdown.
On April 26, 1986, radioactive matter from the number four reactor at Chernobyl erupted, traveling 80,000 square miles across Europe. Chernobyl released a hundred times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped during World War II on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
In areas in and around Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union, tens of thousands of residents were forced from their homes. Many have never returned. An estimated 70 percent of the noxious air landed on nearby Belarus, poisoning one-fifth of that nation’s cropland and affecting more than 2.2 million of its 10.4 million people. Half a million of those who suffered from the fallout were children.
SOS Children’s Villages entered Belarus expressly to help families cope with this terrible disaster. In 1996, SOS initiated its operations in Belarus by opening an SOS Children’s Village in Borovljany, 12 miles northeast of the capital Minsk. From the get-go, SOS Borovljany and its adjoining SOS Social Center catered to children from all over Belarus in need of medical assistance following the nuclear disaster.

More at: SOS Chernobyl 

Donatefree.org


Monday, May 23, 2011

Nuclear Radiation items YOU NEED! - Potassium Iodide

Nuclear Radiation items YOU NEED! - Potassium Iodide

YouTube - Fukushima Flush Radiation 10,000 times normal confirmed

good news report from RT news on current state of affairs in Japan. Old posting April , but very good.

YouTube - Radiation in US Milk Supply - Nuclear Crisis

Radiation in US Milk Supply - Nuclear Crisis


YouTube - Radiation in US Milk Supply - Nuclear Crisis: "Radiation in US Milk Supply - Nuclear Crisis"

Epidemiologist, Dr. Steven Wing, Discusses Global Radiation Exposures and Consequences with Gundersen on Vimeo

Epidemiologist, Dr. Steven Wing and nuclear engineer, Arnie Gundersen, discuss the consequences of the Fukushima radioactive fallout on Japan, the USA, and the world. What are the long-term health effects? What should the government(s) do to protect citizens?

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

What You Should Know about Potassium Iodide and Atomic Fallout

What You Should Know about Potassium Iodide and Atomic Fallout

The Nuclear Power Industry’s Historic Delay for Civilian Protection

On December 10, 2001 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) renewed its call for the widespread stockpiling of a thyroid-blocking medicine that prevents the absorption of radioactive iodine. Following the FDA announcement the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ended its long-standing debate over the civilian stockpiling of potassium iodide (KI). The NRC declared that it will fund civilian supplies for one to two doses per individual for persons within the current 10-mile emergency planning zone of every nuclear power station in the US.  The American Thyroid Association had also urged the federal government to distribute KI with a particular focus on the vulnerability of children’s thyroid glands caught downwind of a radioactive iodine release from a nuclear power plant accident or sabotage. The nuclear industry and the NRC had previously argued against KI distribution saying it would be too hard to administrate and hinder more practical civilian evacuations in the event of an accident. In the wake of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and NRC revised their policy directing states to consider KI stockpiling and distribution.

In December 1978, the FDA first announced that it had determined that KI was safe and effective as a thyroid protection medicine in the event of a nuclear accident. At that time the agency was essentially ignored by NRC and FEMA neither of which took action to make KI publicly available. Three months following the FDA recommendation the Three Mile Island nuclear generating station had a core melt accident on March 28, 1979. On March 30, 1979 an FDA official arranged an emergency purchase order to Mallinckrodt Chemical Company for the immediate production of 250,000 doses of potassium iodide to begin distribution in Pennsylvania 24 hours later.  It was President Carter’s “Kemeny Commission” investigation into the aftermath of TMI that was first critical of the NRC’s failure to take precautionary action by distributing adequate supplies of the thyroid protection medicine.  The nuclear power industry would successfully lobby the NRC and FEMA against KI distribution for another 23 years to prevent a nationwide thyroid protection plan. Today, state governments are only beginning to implement a new NRC/FEMA guidance plan for KI distribution.

The government foot dragging stems more from nuclear industry’s concerted effort to protect its “safe power” image than protect the American public from a potential accident. Following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Ukraine, the Polish government was prepared to distribute KI to millions of Poland’s children with apparent success in reducing the number of thyroid cancers and abnormalities that now plague other less fortunate populations in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine not afforded the medical protection.  While every nuclear power plant operator in the United States has stockpiled enough KI for its employees and emergency workers entire communities including children in our homes, daycare centers and schools are being denied the same level of immediate protection.

How KI Protects The Thyroid Gland From Radioactive Iodine Releases

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits at the base of the neck. While especially important to children for producing growth hormone, the thyroid gland also produces hormones which influence essentially every organ, every tissue and every cell in the body regulating the body's metabolism and organ function, affecting heart rate, cholesterol level, body weight, energy level, muscle strength, skin condition, menstrual regularity, memory and many other conditions.  To make thyroid hormone, the thyroid gland uses dietary iodine and supplements in salt, water and other sources.

Radioactive Iodine-131 generated in nuclear power plants is a major human health concern in an airborne release from a damaged reactor because its mobility and radioactivity, having an 8 day half-life. Radioactive iodine is quickly absorbed and concentrated by the thyroid. Researchers have consistently reported that children who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster are developing an aggressive form of thyroid cancer sooner and in larger numbers than expected. Children are particularly susceptible to thyroid cancer from radioactive iodine because their thyroid glands are small and concentrate the iodine from radioactive fallout because they drink more milk and get larger doses of radioactive iodine and because their thyroids are thought to be more vulnerable to radiation.

 Potassium iodide, if taken prior to the passage of the radioactive plume, saturates the thyroid gland with non-radioactive iodine and blocks the uptake of radioactive iodine so that it can be excreted. Prophylactic doses of KI can thus prevent thyroid cancers and other thyroid diseases that might otherwise be caused by exposure to radioactive iodine dispersed in a severe nuclear accident or sabotage.  While KI is considered by the FDA to be safe and effective enough for over-the-counter distribution, the necessary dosage levels and duration of KI uptake are still considered a medicine by the American Thyroid Association and people are advised to consult a physician and pediatrician for appropriate dosages.

Potassium Iodide Does Not Protect Against All Radiation Exposure

 The stockpiling of KI should be viewed as an important precaution for communities downwind of nuclear power plants. But radioactive iodine is only one of many radioactive by-products that would be simultaneously released from a damaged reactor.  For example, a release would also contain radioactive fallout of cesium-137 and strontium-90 each with a half-life of 30 years.

While broadly categorized as an “anti-radiation” pill, KI does not protect populations caught downwind from these other long-lived radioactive isotopes. People caught under a passing radioactive cloud would also be exposed to whole body doses of harmful gamma rays and potentially lethal radiation sickness. Inhalation and ingestion of other radioactive gases and particulate would cause cancers and diseases in the lungs, digestive system, blood and reproductive organs.

For further information contact: Nuclear Information and Resource Service,
1424 16th Street NW Suite 404,
Washington, DC 20036
Tel. 202-328-0002
http://www.nirs.org

RADIATION BASICS

RADIATION BASICS

"There is no safe level of exposure and there is no dose of (ionizing) radiation so low that the risk of a malignancy is zero" --Dr. Karl Morgan, the father of Health Physics

WHAT IS RADIATION?

Radiation is energy that travels in waves. It includes visible light, ultraviolet light, radio waves and other forms, including particles. Each type of radiation has different properties. Non-ionizing radiation can shake or move molecules. Ionizing radiation can break molecular bonds, causing unpredictable chemical reactions. Ionizing radiation includes not only energy waves but particles as well. Humans cannot see, feel, taste, smell or hear ionizing radiation. Unavoidable exposure to ionizing radiation comes from cosmic rays and some natural material. Human exposure to natural radiation is responsible for a certain number of mutations and cancers. Additional exposure above natural background radiation is cause for concern since it may result in otherwise preventable disease.

WHERE DOES IONIZING RADIATION COME FROM?

Ionizing radiation is matter or energy that is given off by the nucleus of an unstable atom in the process of decaying and reaching a stable (ground) state. This energy is released in the form of subatomic particles (alpha and beta) or waves (gamma and x rays). Most elements and their atoms are not radioactive. A few radioactive elements, like uranium, radium, and thorium, occur in nature.

Humans, through nuclear power, bomb production and testing, have created and released man-made radioactive elements (radionuclides) that were previously unknown in the environment. Through mining and industrial processing naturally radioactive elements like uranium and thorium have been released to flow through the natural systems on which life depends. These substances were, with few exceptions, geologically isolated from the environment under layers of shale and quartz before human beings dug them up by the ton and contaminated the biosphere. Because of poorly conceived and implemented nuclear technologies, such as atomic energy, bomb production and reprocessing, we and our descendants are left with a legacy of radioactive waste with no proven isolation method.

FROM A TO X

Alpha particles are high energy, large subatomic structures. They can’t travel very far and can be stopped by a piece of paper or skin. However, alpha particles hit hard and can do a great deal of damage to the cells they rip through. Once inhaled, ingested or otherwise taken inside the body (as through a cut in the skin), they have the power to tear through cells in organs or blood, releasing their energy to surrounding tissue and leaving extensive damage in their wake. A single track of a single alpha particle can deliver a large dose of radiation to a cell. Plutonium is an alpha emitter. Other alpha emitters include radon gas, uranium, and americium.

Beta particles are electrons. They are a fraction of the size of alpha particles, can travel farther and are more penetrating. Betas pose a risk both outside and inside the body, depending on their energy level. External exposure can result in beta penetration through the surface to the most sensitive layers of skin. Inhalation or ingestion of a beta-emitting radionuclide poses the greatest risk. Externally, a half-inch of Plexiglas or water shielding can generally stop a beta. Strontium-90 and tritium are two beta-emitting radionuclides routinely released from nuclear power reactors during normal operation. Our bodies often mistake strontium-90 for calcium, collecting it in our bones that make our new blood cells. Once there, it increases our risk of bone and blood cancers like leukemia. Every one of us has strontium-90 in our bodies as a result of nuclear bomb testing. Tritium is radioactive hydrogen, which binds where normal hydrogen does. Hydrogen is the most abundant element on the earth, and is a component of water, which cushions our genetic material (DNA). Tritium can bond in this water, irradiating our DNA at very close range.

Gamma rays are the most penetrating type of radiation and can be stopped only by thick lead blocking their path. Cesium-137 is a gamma emitter often released from nuclear reactors. It mimics potassium, collecting in muscle. Iodine-131and Iodine-129 are also gamma-emitters released through bomb testing and at atomic reactors. Radioactive iodines collect in the thyroid gland emitting both beta and gamma ionizing radiation to the surrounding tissue.

X-rays are much like gamma rays except they are most often generated electrically by a machine (rather than a radionuclide), usually for medical diagnostic procedures. X-rays also require lead shielding. When generated by medical equipment, their production does not create nuclear waste.

HALF-LIVES AND DECAY CHAINS

Different radionuclides have different half-lives. Half-life is the time it takes for one-half of a radioactive element to decay the next step toward stability. Some radionuclides decay to a stable element in a single step. For others, like uranium, the movement toward stability may be a long, complex process. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years, about the age of the Earth. All told, it has 17 decay steps before reaching a final, stable form of lead. Half-lives can range from fractions of seconds (Polonium-214, .00016 seconds), to days (Iodine-131, 8.04 days) to billions of years (Uranium-238, above). A radionuclide may also decay to another radioactive element that has a longer half-life and is more biologically active than the original radionuclide. For instance, xenon-135 (9-hour half-life) decays to cesium-135 with a half-life of 3 million years. Cesium mimics potassium and collects in muscle in the body. Xenon-135 is released regularly by nuclear reactors. Hazardous life is defined as 10-20 times the half-life. This is how long it will take for a given quantity of the radioactive element to decay to undetectable levels.

Some radioactive atoms give off more than one type of radiation. For instance radium, which humans collect and concentrate from an ore called pitchblende, gives off gamma and alpha radiation. Shortly after the Curies (research physicists in France) discovered radium, when its harmful effects were not known or believed, it was widely used, especially among the wealthy. Exposure to radium, ingested in water, painted on watch faces and carried in pockets, caused many debilitating illnesses and excruciating deaths. Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia (leukemia) most likely caused from her exposure to radium through the extraction process she used to concentrate it. To this day, her notebooks are dangerously radioactive.

BIOACCUMULATION

With man’s increased uses of radioactive material, more radionuclides have been and continue to be released to the environment. Once released, they can circulate through the biosphere, ending up in drinking water, vegetables, grass, meat, etc. The higher an animal eats on the food chain, the higher the concentration of radionuclides. This is bioaccumulation. The process of bioaccumulating radionuclides can be especially harmful to humans since many of us eat at the top of the food chain.

"MADMAN IN A LIBRARY…"

Ionizing radiation travels through our living tissue with much more energy than either natural chemical, or biological functions. This extra energy tears mercilessly at the very fabric of what makes us recognizably human—our genetic material. Elderly and people with immune disorders are more susceptible to ionizing radiation. Children and the unborn are especially susceptible because of their rapid and abundant cell division during growth.

Cancers linked to ionizing radiation exposure include most blood cancers (leukemia, lymphoma), lung cancer, and many solid tumors of various organs. Birth defects can include downs syndrome, cleft palate or lip, congenital malformations, spinal defects, kidney, liver damage and more.

Evidence exists that radiation is permanently and unpredictably mutating the gene pool and contributing to its gradual weakening. The New Scientist quotes a report that calls genetic or chromosomal instabilities caused by radiation exposure a "plausible mechanism" for explaining illnesses other than cancer, including "developmental deficiencies in the fetus, hereditary disease, accelerated aging and such non-specific effects as loss of immune competence."

A living being’s genetic material is the library that houses the instructions for many important aspects of that being and his/her offspring, including the ability to defend against diseases. If we allow ionizing radiation to tamper with our genes, it could cause irreversible damage, not just to this generation through cancer, but to future generations through gene mutations and ensuing disease.

Prepared 8/99 by Cindy Folkers, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, 1424 16th Street, NW, #404, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: 202-328-0002. Fax: 202-462-2183. E-mail: nirsnet@nirs.org. Web: www.nirs.org

Sunday, May 8, 2011

Radiation Protection Video Presentations

Radiation Protection Video Presentations

The sites contingency based RPS radiation safety training courses for the Fire, Police and other interested parties offer a cost effective solution for dealing with CBRN (Radiological & Nuclear) and HAZMAT events.

Very helpful site in understanding radiation doses, protect

absorbed dose rate Japan (stations list)

WOWeather.com has compiled a full absorbed dose rate in Japan. Very helpful.

absorbed dose rate Japan (stations list)

Saturday, May 7, 2011

Radiation - NIRS


“There is no safe level of exposure and there is no dose of (ionizing) radiation so low that the risk of a malignancy is zero”--Dr. Karl Morgan, the father of Health Physics"


Read the full story Radiation - NIRS

Radiation and Children: The Ignored Victims

Radiation and Children: The Ignored Victims

Hundreds of U.S. industrial sites that generate nuclear electricity and manufacture nuclear weapons
regularly release radiation to our air, water and soil via the burial of wastes. These same industries are
now lobbying for permission from government to release radioactive materials for re-use in consumer
products. There is no safe radiation dose. Whether the release is accidental or allowed is
irrelevant. This dramatic surge in the release and distribution of radiation, makes it ever more clear
that we do not need a nuclear accident to cause disease.

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

How To Remove Radioactive Iodine-131 From Drinking Water - Jeff McMahon - The Ingenuity of the Commons - Forbes

How To Remove Radioactive Iodine-131 From Drinking Water - Jeff McMahon - The Ingenuity of the Commons - Forbes

Foods Most Prone to Radioactive Contamination: Dairy, Spinach, Mushrooms, Berries

What foods Most Prone to Radioactive Contamination: Dairy, Spinach, Mushrooms, Berries

Melissa Patterson, ND - Newsletter Archive

Radioactive Fallout and the Jet Stream
Radioactive fallout is defined as radioactive material that is carried by winds until it settles to earth. Under some circumstances you may see the fallout; under others you may not. The radioactivity it gives off cannot be seen. You can't feel it. You can't smell it, but fallout doesn't come out of the sky like a gas and seep into everything. It can best be described as a fine to coarse sand carried by the winds. Because the wind direction varies at different heights above the ground, it is not possible to judge from the ground where the fallout will settle. It can settle in irregular patterns hundreds of miles. Here are two websites for following the jet stream and fallout pattern.
Accuweather says that fallout could come to the Pacific Coast as early as 10 days from the date of the explosion in Japan. There have been several fires and explosions already at the Fukushima 1 plant which has six reactors.
Endtimes started tracking "hotspots" that landed in Oregon as early as Sunday, March 13, 2011.

Supplements to Start Taking Now
The following are supplements that I recommend that you start taking now to help your body prepare preemptively for radiation. They are relatively inexpensive and generally locally available: All of the following supplements in this first section except rutin can be found at Whole Foods and other natural food stores.

Herbal Remedies
Here is a list of medicinal herbs that I recommend you take for radiation exposure. You can take them as a tea, a tincture or as individual encapsulated herbs. You can get individual herbal tinctures online at Herb Pharm or get a custom combination tincture made at Farmacopiain Santa Rosa, CA.

Burdock Root (Arctium lappa)
- removes radioactive isotopes from the body.
Recommended Dose - 1-4 ounces/300-120 grams of cooked fresh root, up to a pint of infusion daily, or several large spoonfuls of vinegar but only if made with fresh roots. Tincture - 15-20 drops 3 times a day.
Contraindications - do not use Burdock during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Cilantro Leaf (Coriandum sativum)
- natural heavy metal chelator (i.e. plutonium and cesium are heavy metals.) Therefore, it helps to eliminate them out of the body.
Recommended Dose - Take 1-3 dropperfuls daily of tincture or eat large amounts of fresh cilantro

Eleuthero/Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
- helps protect against the side effects of radiation exposure.
Recommended Dose - 500-3000 mg. in capsule form. Tincture: 15-20 drops three times a day.

Holy Basil/Tulsi Aerial Parts (Ocimum sanctum)
- preliminary research shows evidence that Holy Basil protects against radiation-induced peroxidation, thus helping to protect against the detrimental effects of low-level radiation. It also increases glutathione and superoxide dismutase which are important mediators in the liver in helping the body deal with radiation.
Recommended Dose - Tincture: 40–60 drops, three times per day. Tea: add 1 tsp. dried leaf to 8 oz. hot water, steep, covered, 5–10 minutes. Take 4 oz. of tea up to three times per day. Capsules: various forms of capsulated products are available. These include extracts in gelcaps, dried or powdered herb in capsules, and standardized extracts (2 percent ursolic acid) in capsules.
Contraindications - Holy Basil should not be taken while pregnant or nursing or for an extended period of time. Use caution if you have high blood pressure or rheumatic heart disease.

Reishi Mushroom Fruiting Bodies (Ganoderma lucidum)
- offers protection against ionizing radiation
Preventive Dose - 400 mg. take 2 caps or 1 dropperful of tincture up to 3 times per-day.
Dose Upon Radiation Exposure - take the same dose up to 6 times per day
Contraindications – None.

Laminaria Japonica
- probably the most important seaweed in helping decrease radiation in our body. This seaweed was the secret weapon of Russian doctors that saved thousands of innocent people from disease after nuclear fallout from Chernobyl. It can be quite hard to find. Try Body Ecology.
Recommended Dose - 1500 mg/day
Seaweeds are not only a great natural source of nutrients, they are very effective at removing radiation from the body as they contain sodium alginate. There are literally thousands of different types of seaweeds but some of the most popular seaweeds are arame, wakame, kombu, hijiki, bladderwrack, rockweed, sea lettuce, and dulse. You can find them in your local health food store and various oriental grocery stores in your neighborhood in their natural form, or in flakes, flat sheets, and powders. They can be mixed in soups and salads, or eaten by themselves. If you don't like the taste of seaweeds, or you want something more convenient you can find various seaweed supplements in capsules or tablets. One high quality seaweed supplement made with four organic seaweeds in a capsule is
by RegalLife™. It also contains organic alfalfa which is also found to be beneficial at removing radiation becomes of its rich chlorophyll content.
The Atomic Energy Commission recommends for maximum protection against radioactive poisoning for humans, taking a minimum of 2 to 3 ounces of sea vegetables a week or 10 grams (two tablespoons) a day of sodium alginate supplements. During or after exposure to radiation, the dose should be increased to two full tablespoons of alginate four times daily to insure that there is a continual supply in the GI or gastrointestinal tract. There may be a rare problem of constipation but this can be avoided if the sodium alginate is made into a fruit gelatin. Agar, derived from sodium alginate in kelp, is a safe, nontoxic substance that can be used as a thickening agent or gelatin. Sea vegetables are also high in natural iodine. However, I recommend sticking to potassium iodide as discussed below.

Other Supplements

Rutin
-a bioflavonoid that can also be found in lower doses in vitamin C supplements containing bioflavonoids. Rutin is glucoside found in buckwheat that can help protect the body from the effects of radiation. Itstrengthens the capillary walls and reduces hemorrhaging caused by x-rays. In animal studies it was shown to reduce the death rate caused by excessive x-rays by 800 per cent.
Preventive Dose - 100 to 200 mg a day.
Dose Upon Radiation Exposure - 800 mg. or more a day. I
Contraindications – none

Selenium
- protects DNA from radiation damage and helps prevent damage to the skin surface, too. Get plenty of selenium by eating a daily dose of 2 cups/500 ml of nettle infusion, one-half ounce/15 g kelp, 2 ounces/60 g cooked burdock root, or 1 cup/250 ml organic yogurt daily. Shellfish, green and black teas, and garlic contain significant amounts of selenium, as do many mushrooms. The best sources however are nettles (2200 mcg per 100 grams), kelp (1700 mcg/100 g), Burdock (1400 mcg/100 g), Catnip (Nepeta cataria), American Ginseng, and Eleuthero which is also known as Siberian Ginseng and Astragalus.

Vitamin A
- In 1974, researchers from India found that vitamin A, when taken internally by humans, hastened recovery from radiation. In 1984, Dr. Eli Seifter and a team of researchers for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine reported that vitamin A and beta-carotene counteracted both partial and total body gamma radiation. It also improved the healing of wounds; reduced weight loss, thymic and splenic atrophy, and adrenal enlargement; and prevented gastro-ulceration and an abnormal decrease in red and white blood cell formation. For therapeutic purposes, 25,000 to 35,000 IU is the recommended dose for adults. During emergencies or crisis situations, intensive exposure may warrant higher amounts.
Contraindications - can be toxic if taken too much over a long period of time. Vitamin A can also be toxic to pregnant woman and their babies.

Vitamin B-Complex
- many B vitamins, especially pantothenic acid, help to decrease the effects of radiation. One of its many functions is that they normalize the red and white blood cell count because the destruction of white blood cells by radiation can last for extended periods of time. The various B vitamins have different effects and should be taken together.Take the dose recommended on the bottle.

Vitamin C with bioflavonoids
- this is a VERY IMPORTANT supplement as it protects against intercellular damage from radiation.
Preventive Dose: 2-5 grams per day
Dose Upon Radiation Exposure - 2-5 gram per day
Contraindications - when you start having diarrhea back off 500 mg until you reach bowel tolerance.

Vitamin E
- can provide internal and external protection against Cesium-137 which is a common component of fallout and a reported component in the fallout from Japan. Vitamin E also helps prevent the destruction of vitamin A and fatty acids by massive doses of x-rays. If large doses of C, B and E are taken before exposure, the terrible symptoms of radiation sickness can be reduced or eliminated to a large degree.
Preventive Dose - an adult weighting 155lbs should take 900 IU per day of Vitamin E as d-alpha-tocopherol.
Dose Upon Radiation Exposure - up to 1600 IU per day.

Additional Recommended Supplements That Are More Expensive and/or Difficult To Find

Beta-1,3 glucan
- In a controlled study done at the US Armed Forces Radiobiology Institute, 70% of rats given a lethal dose of radiation were completely protected from radiation effects when given a dose of yeast beta glucan by mouth after the radiation exposure. Beta glucan is a free radical scavenger. It is able to protect blood macrophages from free radical attack during and after the radiation allowing these cells to continue to function in the irradiated body and release factors important to the restoration of normal bone marrow production. This supplement is very expensive, but worth it. Reishi mushroom is high in beta 1,3 glucan if you just want to take that.
Recommended Dose - 500 mg cap/1 time a day

Additional Recommendations Upon Exposure
Here are some additional recommendations if you think you have been exposed to radiation. First and foremost, don’t panic.

Potassium Iodide
- take this as soon as you can once you know you have been exposed. This is a VERY IMPORTANT supplement that helps protect you if you are exposed to Iodine131. It does not help with exposure to any other isotopes. Because it is such an important supplement I recommend IOSAT only FDA approved potassium iodide that is in sealed containers. IOSAT is available online.
Potassium Iodide Recommended Dose from the FDA and the CDC:
According to the FDA, the following doses are appropriate to take after internal contamination with (or likely internal contamination with) radioactive iodine:

  • Adults should take 130 mg (one 130 mg tablet OR two 65 mg tablets OR two ml of solution).
  • Women who are breastfeeding should take the adult dose of 130 mg.
  • Children between 3 and 18 years of age should take 65 mg (one 65 mg tablet OR 1 ml of solution). Children who are adult size (greater than or equal to 150 pounds) should take the full adult dose regardless of their age.
  • Infants and children between 1 month and 3 years of age should take 32 mg (½ of a 65 mg tablet or ½ ml of solution). This dose is for both nursing and non-nursing infants and children.
  • Newborns from birth to 1 month of age should be given 16 mg (¼ of a 65 mg tablet or ¼ ml of solution). This dose is for both nursing and non-nursing newborn infants.

Contraindications - do not take if you are not exposed and take as little as possible, i.e. only when you know that you have been exposed.

Oil
- ½ cup of any cold pressed oil if you are exposed will help protect the cell membranes. Extra virgin olive oil is preferred.

Bentonite Clay
- helps to eradicate toxins radiation/toxins. It is generally advisable to start with 1 tablespoon of bentonite clay daily, mixed with a small amount of juice. Pay attention to the results for a week and then gradually increase the dose to no more than 4 tablespoons daily in divided doses.Make sure you drink plenty of chlorine-free water throughout the day. You can also use other forms of edible clay such as French green clay.

Sea Salt and Baking Soda Baths
- add 1 pound of sea salt and 1 pound of baking soda and soak in chlorine-free water for 20 minutes. Then rinse with cool water. You can also 1 pound of betonite, or other clay, to the sea salt and baking soda when soaking which increases the removal of radiation. Some specialists who work with radioactive isotopes use this method to remove radiation from their body. If you have been exposed to an abnormally high level of radiation you can use this method three times a week for one month.

Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
- good for preventing cell nicking from ionizing radiation.
Recommended dose - 5-10 ml per day

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
- helps the liver deal with the effects of toxicity of radiation poisoning.
Recommended dose -1-3 dropperfuls of tincture per day

Melatonin
- helps protect the brain against radiation
Recommended dose - 1-2 mg Caution - only take Melatonin at night!

Lecithin
- helps protect the cell membranes
Recommended dose - 2-3 tbsp. a day

Chlorophyll
- a number of studies found that chlorophyll-rich foods can decrease radiation toxicity. Spirulina and chlorella are two micro-algae that are rich in this substance, as are leafy greens, celery, parsley, the sprouts of any grain or bean, the young shoots of any edible grass, such as wheat and barley, and sunflower greens. Chlorophyll is similar in structure to hemoglobin. Guinea pigs on a diet rich in chlorophyll showed increased resistance to lethal X-rays. Organic alfalfa is a good source of natural chlorophyll.

Miso
- has been used to treat radiation sickness. It is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting rice, barley and/or soybeans, with salt and the fungus kojikin, the most typical miso being made with soy. Miso is widely available in most natural food stores and many grocery stores.

Other Foods that help the body decrease the effects of radiation
- garlic, onions, beets, kale, brewer’s yeast/nutritional yeast, green tea/black tea, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, watercress, apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, oranges and other citrus fruits, pineapple, seaweed (see above).
In the light of the catastrophe at hand I invite us all to stay calm and focused, knowing that this too shall pass one way or another. May we use this opportunity to realize the beauty and fragility of life, as well as, to give thanks for what we have. And, may people finally awaken to the fact that nuclear power does NOT work in any form no matter what the benefits.

Note on taking supplements:
The above supplements have been shown through research to be effective in decreasing the detrimental effects of radiation on the body. There is a lot of information here. If you only want to do a few supplements, I recommend sticking with the supplements in the first half of the document, since they have the most scientific evidence supporting their use. The doses given are what is determined as safe for an average adult. If you are breastfeeding, pregnant or want to give the supplements to a child, please do further research to see if they are safe for you or your child and what the specific dose would be. Also, if you are sensitive to medications or supplements, please stick to the lower dose. Lastly, some supplements are recommended in higher doses after exposure. If you choose to do this, please note that some side effects might occur with some of these supplements. Please do further research on what you are taking before you take the maximum dose. If you have any serious illnesses or are on medications please talk to your healthcare provider to get more detailed information to ensure these supplements are safe for you prior to taking them.
References
DISCLAIMER:
This article contains general information about medical conditions and treatments. The information is not advice, and should not be treated as such. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing paragraph, Dr. Melissa Patterson does not warrant that the medical information in this article is complete, true, accurate, up-to-date, or non-misleading. You must not rely on the information in this article as an alternative to medical advice from your doctor or other professional healthcare provider. If you have any specific questions about any medical matter you should consult your doctor or other professional healthcare provider. The medical information in this article is provided “as is” without any representations or warranties, express or implied. Dr. Melissa Patterson makes no representations or warranties in relation to the medical information in this article.
Melissa Patterson, ND - Newsletter ArchiveMelissa Patterson, ND - Newsletter Archive
CONTAMINATION IN FRANCE
What are the risks ?
The CRIIRAD received over a thousand calls and requests concerning the impact of
airborne contamination masses in France : What are the risks for my health ? For my
children ? for the child I am expecting ? Do we need to protect ourselves? If so, how can
we protect ourselves ?

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 1

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 1 * You should only take potassium iodide (KI) on the advice of emergency management officials, public health officials, or your doctor. * There are health risks associated with taking KI. What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? Potassium iodide (also called KI) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine. Stable iodine is an important chemical needed by the body to make thyroid hormones. Most of the stable iodine in our bodies comes from the food we eat. KI is stable iodine in a medicine form. This fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gives you some basic information about KI. It explains what you should think about before you or a family member takes KI. What does KI do? Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be released into the air and then be breathed into the lungs. Radioactive iodine may also contaminate the local food supply and get into the body through food or through drink. When radioactive materials get into the body through breathing, eating, or drinking, we say that “internal contamination” has occurred. In the case of internal contamination with radioactive iodine, the thyroid gland quickly absorbs this chemical. Radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can then injure the gland. Because non-radioactive KI acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury.

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 2

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 2 What KI cannot do Knowing what KI cannot do is also important. KI cannot prevent radioactive iodine from entering the body. KI can protect only the thyroid from radioactive iodine, not other parts of the body. KI cannot reverse the health effects caused by radioactive iodine once damage to the thyroid has occurred. KI cannotprotect the body from radioactive elements other than radioactive iodine—if radioactive iodine is not present, taking KI is not protective. How does KI work? The thyroid gland cannot tell the difference between stable and radioactive iodine and will absorb both. KI works by blocking radioactive iodine from entering the thyroid. When a person takes KI, the stable iodine in the medicine gets absorbed by the thyroid. Because KI contains so much stable iodine, the thyroid gland becomes “full” and cannot absorb any more iodine—either stable or radioactive—for the next 24 hours. Iodized table salt also contains iodine; iodized tablesalt contains enough iodine to keep most people healthy under normal conditions. However, table salt does not contain enough iodine to block radioactive iodine from getting into your thyroid gland. You should not use table salt as a substitute for KI. How well does KI work? Knowing that KI may not give a person 100% protection against radioactive iodine is important. How well KI blocks radioactive iodine depends on * how much time passes between contamination with radioactive iodine and the taking of KI (the sooner a person takes KI, the better), * how fast KI is absorbed into the blood, and * the total amount of radioactive iodine to which a person is exposed. Who should take KI? The thyroid glands of a fetus and of an infant are most at risk of injury from radioactive iodine. Young children and people with low stores of iodine in their thyroid are also at risk of thyroid injury. Infants (including breast-fed infants): Infants need to be given the recommended dosage of KI for babies (see How much KI should I take?). The amount of KI that gets into breast milk is not enough to protect breast-fed infants from exposure to radioactive iodine. The proper dose of KI given to a nursing infant will help protect it from radioactive iodine that it breathes in or drinks in breast milk. Children: The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that all children internally contaminated with (or likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take KI, unless they have known allergies to iodine. Children from newborn to 18 years of age are the most sensitive to the potentially harmful effects of radioactive iodine. Young Adults: The FDA recommends that young adults (between the ages of 18 and 40 years) internally contaminated with (or likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take the recommended dose of KI. Young adults are less sensitive to the effects of radioactive iodine than are children. Pregnant Women: Because all forms of iodine cross the placenta, pregnant women should take KI to protect the growing fetus. However, pregnant women should take only one dose of KI following internal contamination with (or likely internal contamination with) radioactive iodine. Breastfeeding Women: Women who are breastfeeding should take only one dose of KI if they have been internally contaminated with (or are likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine. Because radioactive iodine quickly gets into breast milk, CDC recommends that women internally contaminated with (or are likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine stop breastfeeding and feed their child baby formula or other food if it is available. If breast milk is the only food available for an infant, nursing should continue.

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 3

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 3 Adults: Adults older than 40 years should not take KI unless public health or emergency management officials say that contamination with a very large dose of radioactive iodine is expected. Adults older than 40 years have the lowest chance of developing thyroid cancer or thyroid injury after contamination with radioactive iodine. They also have a greater chance of having allergic reactions to KI. When should I take KI? After a radiologic or nuclear event, local public health or emergency management officials will tell the public if KI or other protective actions are needed. For example, public health officials may advise you to remain in your home, school, or place of work (this is known as “shelter-in-place”) or to evacuate. You may also be told not to eat some foods and not to drink some beverages until a safe supply can be brought in from outside the affected area. Following the instructions given to you by these authorities can lower the amount of radioactive iodine that enters your body and lower the risk of serious injury to your thyroid gland. How much KI should I take? The FDA has approved two different forms of KI—tablets and liquid—that people can take by mouth after a nuclear radiation emergency. Tablets come in two strengths, 130 milligram (mg) and 65 mg. The tablets are scored so they may be cut into smaller pieces for lower doses. Each milliliter (mL) of the oral liquid solution contains 65 mg of KI. According to the FDA, the following doses are appropriate to take after internal contamination with (or likely internal contamination with) radioactive iodine: * Adults should take 130 mg (one 130 mg tablet OR two 65 mg tablets OR two mL of solution). * Women who are breastfeeding should take the adult dose of 130 mg. * Children between 3 and 18 years of age should take 65 mg (one 65 mg tablet OR 1 mL of solution). Children who are adult size (greater than or equal to 150 pounds) should take the full adult dose, regardless of their age. * Infants and children between 1 month and 3 years of age should take 32 mg (½ of a 65 mg tablet OR ½ mL of solution). This dose is for both nursing and non-nursing infants and children. · Newborns from birth to 1 month of age should be given 16 mg (¼ of a 65 mg tablet or ¼ mL of solution). This dose is for both nursing and non-nursing newborn infants.

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 4

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 4 How often should I take KI? A single dose of KI protects the thyroid gland for 24 hours. A one-time dose at the levels recommended in this fact sheet is usually all that is needed to protect the thyroid gland. In some cases, radioactive iodine might be in the environment for more than 24 hours. If that happens, local emergency management or public health officials may tell you to take one dose of KI every 24 hours for a few days. You should do this only on the advice of emergency management officials, public health officials, or your doctor. Avoid repeat dosing with KI for pregnant and breastfeeding women and newborn infants. Those individuals may need to be evacuated until levels of radioactive iodine in the environment fall. Taking a higher dose of KI, or taking KI more often than recommended, does not offer more protection and can cause severe illness or death. Medical conditions that may make it harmful to take KI Taking KI may be harmful for some people because of the high levels of iodine in this medicine. You should not take KI if • you know you are allergic to iodine (If you are unsure about this, consult your doctor. A seafood or shellfish allergy does not necessarily mean that you are allergic to iodine.) or • you have certain skin disorders (such as dermatitis herpetiformis or urticaria vasculitis). People with thyroid disease (for example, multinodular goiter, Graves’ disease, or autoimmune thyroiditis) may be treated with KI. This should happen under careful supervision of a doctor, especially if dosing lasts for more than a few days. In all cases, talk to your doctor if you are not sure whether to take KI. What are the possible risks and side effects of KI? When public health or emergency management officials tell the public to take KI following a radiologic or nuclear event, the benefits of taking this drug outweigh the risks. This is true for all age groups. Some general side effects caused by KI may include intestinal upset, allergic reactions (possibly severe), rashes, and inflammation of the salivary glands. When taken as recommended, KI causes only rare adverse health effects that specifically involve the thyroid gland. In general, you are more likely to have an adverse health effect involving the thyroid gland if you * take a higher than recommended dose of KI, * take the drug for several days, or * have pre-existing thyroid disease.

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 5

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 5 Newborn infants (less than 1 month old) who receive more than one dose of KI are at particular risk for developing a condition known as hypothyroidism (thyroid hormone levels that are too low). If not treated, hypothyroidism can cause brain damage. Infants who receive KI should have their thyroid hormone levels checked and monitored by a doctor. Avoid repeat dosing of KI to newborns. Where can I get KI? KI is available without a prescription. You should talk to your pharmacist to get KI and for directions about how to take it correctly. Your pharmacist can sell you KI brands that have been approved by the FDA. Other Sources of Information * The FDA recommendations on KI can be reviewed on the Internet at Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) . * The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emergency Response Site is available at CDC Radiation Emergencies. [4/9/2011 2:09:26 PM] David: Radiation Emergencies CDC has a key role in protecting the public's health in an emergency involving the release of radiation that could harm people's health. This site provides information to help people protect themselves during and after such an event. It also provides information for professionals involved in planning for and responding to this type of emergency.

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 6

Potassium Iodide (KI) Key Facts 6 On March 11, CDC immediately activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Atlanta to respond to the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami and radiation release in Japan. CDC continues to closely monitor the effects of this disaster and is focused on making sure it is ready to support any requests that come in from Japanese colleagues related to public health. Japan: Radiation and Health * Radiation Doses (EPA) * Food and Water Safety * Radioisotope Brief: Iodine-131 (I-131) * Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137) * Radiation Dictionary Fact Sheets * FAQs About Iodine-131 Found in Surface Water * FAQs About Iodine-131 Found in Milk * Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) * Potassium Iodide (KI) * Prussian Blue * All Fact Sheets > Japan: Info for Specific Groups * Travelers * Clinicians * More groups... Related Resources * Social Media * What is CDC's Role in Emergencies ? * U.S. Government Response to Japan Events (USAgov) * Radiation Control Programs (CRCPD) * Recent Emergency Radiation Preparedness Conference 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Current Situation * Nuclear Regulatory Commission * Department of Homeland Security Radiation and Health * Radioisotope Brief: Iodine-131 (I-131) * Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): Fact Sheet for the Public Radiation and Treatment * Potassium Iodide (KI) * Prussian Blue Visit the full CDC Radiation Emergencies website. Your Health and Safety * Protecting Yourself and Your Family Protecting Yourself and Your Family Preparing for an emergency and what to do during an emergency * Health Effects and Treatment sHealth Effects and Treatments Health effects such as acute radiation syndrome; potential treatments (potassium iodide, Prussian blue, DTPA, Neupogen) * Radiation and Pregnancy Radiation and Pregnancy Possible health effects of radiation on pregnant women * Types of Radiation Emergencies Types of Radiation Emergencies Terrorist events (such as dirty bombs and nuclear blasts) and unintentional emergencies (such as reactor accidents)

Thursday, April 21, 2011